There are various ways in which an organisation employs people to fill a position. These sources of recruitment can be internal (present employees, referrals and previous applicants) or external (advertisements, campus recruitment and E-recruitment). The main aim is to locate sources of skills and/or experience in order to meet job requirements and job specifications. The cost of hiring the wrong person can be detrimental to a company.
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What is Recruitment
Recruitment is one of the functions of the human resources of an organisation. It involves searching and attracting qualified people and motivating them to apply for openings within an organisation. It also includes shortlisting, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs in an organisation.
Internal sources of recruitment are the ways in which an organisation fills a vacancy from within the organisation. If internal employees have the right qualifications or skills for a job post recruiting internally will be ideal. The internal personnel include employees already on payroll and those that were employees of an organisation but wish to return. The popular internal sources of recruitment are indicated below.
The most common internal source of recruitment is a promotion. Employees who work hard and show good performance are elevated within the organisation to fill a vacant position. The promotion means an increase in responsibility, pay and authority for the employee. Promotions may be based on seniority or merit. Also, a promotion may be temporary or permanent and some employees may be given dry promotions (promotions without an increase in salary).
- Former Employees
An organisation can rehire former employees who performed well during their tenure. These employees may be given a better salary package and incentives to fill a vacant position.
- Internal transfers
Internal transfers are another source of recruitment within an organisation. They refer to the shifting of employees from one job to another without a drastic change in the responsibilities and status of the employees. Suitable employees can be moved from one department to another in order to fill a vacant position.
- Internal advertisement
This source of recruitment is also common in organisations. A job vacancy is first advertised internally before it can be posted externally. All interested employees are given the opportunity to apply for the position and a suitable candidate can be hired from within the organisation.
Advantages of Internal sources of recruitment
- Internal sources of recruitment are quicker and motivate existing employees
- Advertising internally is cheaper
- Employees become more loyal to the organisation
- Induction and training costs are reduced since existing employees are already familiar with the company and what is expected of them
- Internal sources of recruitment have proven to be reliable
Disadvantages of Internal sources of recruitment
- The performance of existing employees may not be the same in a different post
- Internal sources of recruitment may negatively affect the candidates that are not selected
- Some managers and recruiters have been accused of favouritism or bias when recruiting internally
External Sources of Recruitment
An organisation can tap into the labour market through job advertisements in newspapers, job portals on the internet and through reaching out to educational institutions. There are many ways an organisation can recruit externally as indicated below.
- Newspapers and journal advertisements
This source of recruitment is one of the oldest methods of recruiting. it is commonly used to attract skilled, supervisory or senior level candidates.
- Campus Recruitments
This external source of recruitment is most effective when hiring for entry level positions. Students from various institutions can be interviewed. Hiring the best candidates is highly likely. The hiring companies can visit a number of educational institutions or host career fairs so that interested students can apply for various jobs. This way, graduates are given an opportunity to prove themselves and get good jobs. For technical staff, a company may enter into an agreement with the training institutions where the educational institution supplies workers that meet a certain criterion.
- Labour Unions
A labour union is a source of recruitment for workers with specific skills. If an organisation wants people with trade skills such as construction workers, it can contact an organised group of workers. Recruiting from a labour union is efficient and less time consuming since labour unions are most likely to have readily available workers seeking employment.
- Recruitment agencies
Placement agencies are another source of recruitment where a list of various candidates is sent to interested companies by the agents for potential candidates. In return the agency gets a commission. In some cases, the recruitment agency conducts the recruitment process on behalf of the interested company due to the high costs involved in recruiting. In such a case, the recruitment agency operates as a middleman between the company and the candidates.
E-Recruitment refers to internet recruitment. Job portals, applications and websites are also a popular source of recruitment for may organisations. Jobs.com, LinkedIn and careers24 are some of the popular platforms. This way, interested candidates can upload their resumes and companies can easily contact those they are interested in. Nowadays, companies also have their own job or careers’ portal on their websites where external candidates can apply for a job vacancy. This source of recruitment is quick and efficient because resumes can be uploaded on the day a job listing is made.
It is also common for human resources to hire a competitor’s employee by offering a better salary and working conditions. This may be seen as an unethical practise, but it is another source of recruitment, especially in the IT industry where workers with technical skills are in high demand. Some companies make agreements not to poach or solicit each other’s employees. However, such agreements may limit employees’ opportunities for career and income growth.
Advantages of External sources of Recruitment
- External sources of recruitment allow fresh talent to enter into the organisation
- The chances of hiring the best candidate are high because of the large pool of applicants
Disadvantages of External sources of Recruitment
- External sources of recruitment may make internal employees feel insecure or undervalued
- It is costly and time consuming
- It can contribute to higher employee turnover